How to Use This Site

How to Use This Site

How to Navigate the Living Textbook

The Living Textbook is organized to follow the linear progression through the process of conducting a pragmatic clinical trial (PCT). Chapters are divided into three main groups, based on the stage in this process: Design; Data, Tools & Conduct; and Dissemination. A drop-down menu for each group allows you to select the chapter you would like to read.

A Table of Contents provides another method of quickly accessing chapters and topics.


Moving Within Chapters

Chapters contain one or more sections that cover specific topics. This structure is intended to help you find the information you need quickly and easily. When you select a chapter, you will be taken to Section 1 of that chapter. From the side or footer sections list, you may click a different section to navigate there. The section you are on will be bolded in the sections list. You can also use the “Previous Section” or ”Next Section” links at the bottom of each page to move through the sections in order. Sections may contain lists of additional resources or an alphabetical reference list where appropriate.

Locating Other Content

In addition to the chapters, other pages on the Living Textbook provide information about the NIH Collaboratory program and its initiatives. These pages can be accessed from the Living Textbook homepage.


How to Search

Search the Living Textbook by clicking on the magnifying glass at the top right of the header.

You can also search the NIH Collaboratory Knowledge Repository archive, which contains additional Grand Rounds presentations, peer-reviewed articles, white papers, guidance documents, and tools related to PCTs.


How to Cite the Living Textbook

To reference a section of the Living Textbook, click on the quotation marks icon at the top of the page. When clicked, the citation for that page is provided in AMA style.

Copyright Notice

Except where otherwise indicated, material on this website (“Rethinking Clinical Trials®: A Living Textbook of Pragmatic Clinical Trials”) is dedicated to the public domain and may be freely downloaded, shared, adapted, or re-used. In cases where website content is noted as being under copyright, the copyright holder should be contacted for permission to share, reuse, or adapt the material.


Additional Guidance: Adapted Content, Disclaimers, and Trademarks

  • Website content that is shared or reproduced without changes should be attributed to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory and/or the Living Textbook, and, where appropriate, any named authors. Please see the suggested citation on each chapter page for how to cite Living Textbook materials.
  • Website content that is modified, adapted, or edited must not be used in ways that imply the endorsement of personal viewpoints, products, organizations, services, or other commercial concerns.
  • The NIH and NIH Collaboratory logos should be removed from any modified, edited, or adapted content.
  • Reference in this web site to any specific commercial products, process, service, manufacturer, or company does not constitute its endorsement or recommendation by the U.S. Government, the NIH, or the NIH Collaboratory. Neither the NIH nor the NIH Collaboratory is responsible for the contents of any external websites linked to or referenced from this server.
  • None of the material on this site constitutes medical advice, nor is it intended to guide the treatment or diagnosis of medical conditions.
  • The phrase “Rethinking Clinical Trials®” is a registered trademark of Duke University.

If you have any further questions about sharing, reusing, or adapting materials from the Living Textbook, or have any copyright-related questions about content on the site, please contact us at


How to Use This Site: How to Use This Site. In: Rethinking Clinical Trials: A Living Textbook of Pragmatic Clinical Trials. Bethesda, MD: NIH Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory. Available at: Updated March 26, 2020.