Key Considerations

Designing with Implementation and Dissemination in Mind

Section 2

Key Considerations


David Chambers, DPhil

Gloria Coronado, PhD

Beverly Green, MD, MPH

Jeffrey Jarvik, MD, MPH

Edward J Septimus, MD, FACP

Leah Tuzzio, MPH

Douglas Zatzick, MD


Contributing Editor

Karen Staman, MS

Key considerations for the planning stage:

  • What impact do you want to have after findings are published in the literature?
  • What are the needs of the audiences (including patients) who will use the research findings to make decisions?
  • What questions are relevant to those audiences?
  • Who can be engaged as a partner from the beginning to help refine the research question, define measurable outcomes, and refine the protocol? (Slutsky 2015)
  • What are your plans to assess and monitor potential barriers and contextual changes throughout the PCT?
  • What trial design will enable you to best understand the effectiveness and implementation potential?
  • Is the intervention designed in a way that it can be delivered in a wide variety of health care settings?
  • Who is able to deliver the intervention in usual healthcare settings?
  • Are specific resources needed in order to deliver the intervention on an ongoing basis?




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Slutsky J. 2015. PCORI snapshot. Presented at: Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute Meeting; Washington, DC.

Version History

Published August 25, 2017

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Key Considerations


Chambers D, Coronado G, Green B, et al. Designing with Implementation and Dissemination in Mind: Key Considerations. In: Rethinking Clinical Trials: A Living Textbook of Pragmatic Clinical Trials. Bethesda, MD: NIH Health Care Systems Research Collaboratory. Available at: Updated November 13, 2018. DOI: 10.28929/050.